Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Return Migration and IdentityA Global Phenomenon, A Hong Kong Case$

Nan M. Sussman

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9789888028832

Published to Hong Kong Scholarship Online: September 2011

DOI: 10.5790/hongkong/9789888028832.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM HONG KONG SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.hongkong.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Hong Kong University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in HKSO for personal use (for details see http://www.hongkong.universitypressscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 23 November 2017

(p.317) References

(p.317) References

Return Migration and Identity
Hong Kong University Press

Bibliography references:

Adler, N. (1981). Re-entry: Managing cross-cultural transitions. Group and Organizational Studies, 6, 341–356.

Alatas, S. H. (1972). The captive mind in development studies: Some neglected problems and the need for an autonomous social science tradition in Asia. International Social Science Journal, 24, 9–25.

Angel, K. (May 17, 2004). Game names. South China Morning Post, C5.

Angel, K. (May 24, 2004). Relativity. South China Morning Post, C5.

Argyle, M. (1982). Intercultural communication. In S. Bochner (ed.), Cultures in contact: Studies in cross-cultural interaction (pp. 61–80). Oxford: Pergamon.

Ashmore, R. D., Deaux, K., and McLaughlin-Volpe, T. (2004). An organizing framework collective identity: Articulation and significance of multidimensionality. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 80–114.

Attias, J. C., and Benbassa, E. (2003). Israel: The impossible land. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Bagozzi, R. P., Wong, N., and Yi, Y. (1999). The role of culture and gender in the relationship between positive and negative affect. Cognition and Emotion, 13, 641–672.

Basch, L., Schiller, N. G., and Blanc, C. S. (1994). Nations unbound: Transnational projects, post-colonial predicaments, and deterritorialized nation states. Langhorne, PA: Gordon and Breach.

Baumeister, R. F. (1986). Identity: Cultural change and the struggle for self. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Baumeister, R. F., Shapiro, J. P., and Tice D. M. (1985). Two kinds of identity crisis. Journal of Personality, 53, 407–424.

Benet-Martinez, V., Leu, J., Lee, F., and Morris, M. W. (2002). Negotiating biculturalism: Cultural frame switching in biculturals with oppositional versus compatible identities. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33, 492–516.

Berry, J. W. (1980). Acculturation as variations of adaptation. In A. Padilla (ed.), Acculturation, theory, models and some new findings (pp. 9–25). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

(p.318) Berry, J. W. (1986). Multiculturalism and psychology in plural societies. In L. H. Ekstand (ed.), Ethnic minorities and immigrants in a cross-cultural perspective. (pp. 35–51). Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets and Zeitlinger.

Berry, J. W. (1995). Psychology of acculturation. In N. R. Goldberger and J. B. Veroff (eds.), The culture and psychology reader (pp. 457–488). New York: New York University Press.

Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation and adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 46, 1–30.

Birman, D., and Trickett, E. J. (2001). Cultural transitions in first-generation immigrants: Acculturation of Soviet Jewish refugee adolescents and parents. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32(4), 456–477.

Birman, D., Trickett, E. J., and Vinokurov, A. (2002). Acculturation and adaptation of Soviet Jewish refugee adolescents: Predictors of adjustment across life domains. American Journal of Community Psychology, 30, 585–607.

Bond, M. H. (1993). Between the yin and the yang: The identity of the Hong Kong Chinese. The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Professorial Inaugural Lecture Series 19. Chinese University Bulletin (Suppl. 31).

Bond, M. H. (1996). Chinese values. In M. H. Bond (ed.), The handbook of Chinese psychology (pp. 208–226). Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.

Bond, M. H., and Chung, K. V. (1991). Resistance to group or personal insults in an ingroup or outgroup context. International Journal of Psychology, 26, 83–94.

Bond, M. H., and Hewstone, M. (1988). Social identity theory and the perception of intergroup relations in Hong Kong. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 12, 153–170.

Bond, M. H., and Hwang, K. K. (1986). The social psychology of Chinese people. In M. H. Bond (ed.), The psychology of the Chinese people (pp. 213–266). New York: Oxford University Press.

Bond, M. H., and King, A. Y. C. (1985). Coping with the threat of westernization in Hong Kong. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 9, 351–364.

Bond, M. H., Wan, K. C., Leung, K., and Giacalone, R. A. (1985). How are responses to verbal insult related to cultural collectivism and power distance? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 16, 111–127.

Bourne, P. G. (1975). The Chinese student: Acculturation and mental illness. Psychiatry, 38, 269–277.

Bradsher, K. (May 31, 2004). Democracy supporters march in Hong Kong. The New York Times.

Bray, M., and Koo, R. (2005). Education and society in Hong Kong and Macao: Comparative perspectives on continuity and change (2nd ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

Brein, M., and David, K. (1971). Intercultural communication and the adjustment of the sojourner. Psychological Bulletin, 76, 215–230.

Brewer, M. B. (1999). Multiple identities and identity transition: Implications for Hong Kong. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 23, 187–197.

British Broadcasting Corporation (May 12, 2007). Official says many Chinese returnees cannot find jobs. BBC Worldwide Monitoring.

Carney, S. (March 4, 2008). India beckons Indian-Americans back with jobs. http://www.npr.org/templates/sstory/story.php?storyId=87884391.

(p.319) Cerase, F. P. (1974). Expectations and reality: A case study of return migration from the United States to southern Italy. International Migration Review, 8, 245–262.

Cervantes, Miguel de. ([1613]2006). The jealous Estramaduran. In The exemplary novels of Cervantes (pp. 335–367). London: BiblioBazaar.

Chabin, M. (March 2, 1997). Behind the headlines: Israelis living abroad wooed to return by government firms. Jewish Telegraphic Agency Online.

Chan, K. B. (1997). A family affair: Migration, dispersal and the emergent identity of the Chinese cosmopolitan. Diaspora, 6, 195–214.

Chan, K. B. (2004). From multiculturalism to hybridity: The Chinese in Canada. In J. Rex and G. Singh (eds.), Governance in multicultural societies (pp. 227–244). Aldershot, England: Ashgate.

Chan, K. B. (2005). Chinese identities, ethnicity, and cosmopolitanism. London: Routledge.

Chan, W. W. Y. (1996). Home but not home: A case study of some Canadian returnees in Hong Kong. Thesis, Division of Social Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.

Chataway, C. J., and Berry, J. W. (1989). Acculturation experiences, appraisal, coping, and adaptation: A comparison of Hong Kong Chinese, French, and English students in Canada. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 21, 295–309.

Chaudhary, V. (December 16, 2007). Take the money and run — Illegal migrants go “home” on handouts. The Sunday Times (London), News, p. 10.

Chen, R. Y. (November 18, 1999). Masami Teraoka’s work — A multiplicity of themes. Asian Week, 21(13), 1–3.

Cheng, J. (August 9, 2007). Hong Kong aims to embrace nearby Shenzhen. The Wall Street Journal.

Cheng, S. M., and Ng, S. H. (1995). The Chinese migrant ethos and Hong Kong’s brain drain. In J. H. Ong, K. B. Chan, and K. C. Ho (eds.), Crossing borders: Transmigration in the Asia Pacific. Singapore: Prentice-Hall.

Cheung, G., and Wu, E. (May 15, 2004). Hongkongers look to the mainland for a better life. South China Morning Post.

Chiang, N., and Liao S. (2005). Back to base: Adaptation and self-identity of young Taiwanese transnationals. Paper presented at “People on the move: The transnational flow of Chinese human capital,” Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, October 20–22.

Chinese Culture Connection (1987). Chinese values and the search for culture-free dimensions of culture. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 8, 143–164.

Chinese Entertainment Weekly, The (October 8, 1993). Toronto, Canada.

Chiu, C., and Hong, Y. (1997). Justice in Chinese societies: A Chinese perspective. In H. S. R. Kao and D. Sinha (eds.), Asian perspective on psychology (pp. 164–184). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Chiu, C., and Hong, Y. (1999). Social identifcation in a political transition: The role of implicit beliefs. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 2, 297–318.

Chiu, C., Morris, M. W., Hong, Y., and Menon, T. (2000). Motivated cultural cognition: The impact of implicit cultural theories on dispositional attribution varies as a function of need for closure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 297–318.

Choi, I., Dalal, R., and Kim-Prieto, C. (2000). Information search in causal attribution: Analytic vs. holistic. Unpublished manuscript, Seoul National University.

(p.320) Chow, R. (1992). Between colonizers: Hong Kong post-colonial self-writing in the 1990’s. Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies, 2, 57.

Cinel, D. (1991). The national integration of Italian return migration, 1870–1929. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Clarke, D. (2000). The culture of a border within: Hong Kong art and China. Art Journal, 59, 88–101.

Costigan, C. L., and Dokis, D. P. (2006). Similarities and differences in acculturation among mothers, fathers, and children in immigrant Chinese families. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37, 723–741.

Curran, M. (2007). Returning to Ireland. Paper presented at the American Conference for Irish Studies. New York, April 18–21.

Day, M., and Hope, C. (October 23, 2008). A third of Poles are heading home. The Daily Telegraph, p. 1.

Deaux, K. (1996). Social identification. In E. T. Higgins and A. W. Kruglanski (eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (pp. 777–798). New York: Guilford Press.

Deaux, K. (2006). To be an immigrant. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

DeGolyer, M. E. (2007). Identity in the politics of transition: The case of Hong Kong, “Asia’s World City.” In K. B. Chan, J. Walls, and D. Hayward (eds.), East-West identities: Globalization, localization, and hybridization (pp. 21–54). Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers.

Desai, K. (2006). The inheritance of loss. New York: Grove.

Devoretz, D., Ma, J., and Zhang, M. (2003). Triangular human capital flows: Empirical evidence from Hong Kong and Canada. In J. Reitz (ed.), Host societies and the reception of immigrants (pp. 469–492). LaJolla, CA: Center for Comparative Immigration Studies, University of California, San Diego.

Diamond, J. (1997). Guns, germs, and steel: The fate of human societies. New York: Norton.

Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen., R. J., and Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.

Dinges, N. G., and Hull, P. (1992). Personality, culture, and international studies. In D. Lieberman and M. Gurtov (ed.), Revealing the world: An interdisciplinary reader for international studies (pp. 133–162). Dubuque, IA: Kendall-Hunt.

Dion, K. L., and Dion, K. K. (1996). Chinese adaptation to foreign cultures. In M. H. Bond (ed.), The handbook of Chinese psychology (pp. 457–478). Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.

Dion, K. L., and Toner, B. B. (1988). Ethnic differences in test anxiety. Journal of Social Psychology, 128, 165–172.

Dougherty, C. (June 26, 2008). Strong economy and labor shortages are luring Polish immigrants back home. The New York Times, A6.

Dustmann, C. (2003). Children and migration. Journal of Population Economics, 16, 815–830.

Dyal, J. A., and Chan, C. (1985). Stress and distress: A study of Hong Kong Chinese and Euro-Canadian students. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 16, 447–466.

Facts about Irish immigration. (2009). http://www.udel.edu/soe/deal/IrishImmigrationFacts.html.

Faxon, A. (1999). Masami Teraoka: From tradition to technology, the floating world comes of age. Art New England, 20(4), 56.

(p.321) Foner N. (1997). What’s new about transnationalism? New York immigrants today and at the turn of the century. Diaspora, 6, 355–376.

Fowler, G. A., and Qin, J. (February 5, 2007). Hong Kong’s baby boom. The Wall Street Journal.

Furnham, A., and Bochner, S. (1982). Social difficulty in a foreign culture: An empirical analysis of culture shock. In S. Bochner (ed.), Cultures in contact: Studies in cross-cultural interactions (pp. 161–198). Oxford: Pergamon.

Gelfand, M. J., Nishii, L. H., Holcombe, K. M., Dyer, N., Ohbuchi, K. I., and Fukuno, M. (2001). Cultural influences on cognitive episodes in the United States and Japan. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 1059–1074.

Ghosh, B. (2000). Return migration: Journey of hope or despair. Geneva: IOM and United Nations.

Ghuman, P. A. S. (2000). Acculturation of South Asian adolescents in Australia. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 305–316.

Glick-Schiller, N., Basch, L., and Szanton-Blanc, C. (eds.) (1992). Towards a transnational perspective on migration: Race, class, ethnicity, and nationalism reconsidered (Vol. 645). New York: New York Academy of Sciences.

Gmelch, G. (1980). Return migration. Annual Review of Anthropology, 9, 135–159.

Gold, S. (2002). The Israeli diaspora. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Gorman, A. (September 1, 2008). A darker state economy sends day laborers packing. The Los Angeles Times, Metro, p. 1.

Government of Hong Kong (2000). Returnees to Hong Kong. Census and Statistics Department, Special Topics Report No. 25.

Government of Hong Kong (2003). Survey of returnees.

Government of Ireland Central Statistics Office (2006). Dublin population and migration estimates.

Graham, E. M., and Wada, E. (1992). Foreign direct investment in China: Effects on growth and economic performance. Peterson Institute Working Paper Series, http://www.petersoninstitute.org/publications/wp/01-3.pdf

Graham, M. A. (1983). Acculturative stress among Polynesian, Asian and American students on the Brigham Young University–Hawaii campus. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 7, 79–103.

Gregersen, H., and Stroh, L. (1997). Coming home to the artic cold: Antecedents to Finnish expatriate and spouse repatriation adjustment. Personnel Psychology, 50, 635–654.

Grinberg, L., Grinberg, R., and Festinger, N. (1989). Psychoanalytic perspectives on migration and exile. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Grisi, D. (2004). Cultural transition and change in social identity: MLAL’s returned volunteers. Master’s thesis, Faculty of Education, University of Verona, Italy.

Guarnizo, L. E. (1997). The emergence of a transnational social formation and the mirage of return migration among Dominican transmigrants. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, 4, 281–322.

Gu, X. http://dianeferrisgallery.com/artist/xiong.

Guo, S., and DeVoretz, D. J. (2006). The changing face of Chinese immigrants in Canada. Journal of Immigration and Integration, 7, 425–447.

Hall, E. T. (1966). The hidden dimension. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

Hall, E. T. (1976). Beyond culture. New York: Anchor Books.

(p.322) Hamilton, G. (1999). Cosmopolitan capitalists. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Handlin, O. (July 1956). Immigrants who go back. Atlantic, 70.

Hansel, B. (1993). An investigation of the re-entry adjustment of Indians who studied in the U.S. Occasional Papers in Intercultural Learning, 17, 1–28. New York: AFS Center for the Study of Intercultural Learning.

Hart, D. (2003). Looking for home. Art and Australia, 40, 618–625.

Hatzichristou, C., and Hopf, D. (1995). School adaptation of Greek children after remigration: Age differences in multiple domains. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 26, 505–522.

Hawthorne, N. ([1860] 1990). The marble faun. New York: Penguin Books.

Heartney, E. (2002). Cai Guo-Qiang: Illuminating the new China. Art in America, 90(5), 92–97.

Heenan, D. (September 19, 2005). High-powered immigrants going home. US News and World Report.

Hermans, H. J. M., and Kempen, H. J. G. (1998). Moving cultures: The perilous problems of cultural dichotomies in a globalizing society. American Psychologist, 53, 1111–1120.

Hertz, D. G. (1984). Psychological and psychiatric aspects of remigration. Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 21, 57–68.

Higgins, E. T. (1996). The “self-digest”: Self-knowledge serving self-regulatory functions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 1062–1083.

Ho, D. Y. F. (1986). Chinese patterns of socialization: A critical review. In M. H. Bond (ed.), The psychology of the Chinese people (pp. 1–37). Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.

Ho, E. S., and Farmer, R. (1994). The Hong Kong Chinese in Auckland. In R. Skeldon (ed.), Reluctant exiles? Migration from Hong Kong and the new overseas Chinese (pp. 215–234). New York: M. E. Sharpe, and Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Hofstede, G., and Hofstede, G. J. (2005). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Hong, Y., Chiu, C., and Kung, T. (1997). Bringing culture out in front: Effects of cultural meaning system activation on social cognition. In K. Leung, Y. Kashima, U. Kim, and S. Yamaguichi (eds.), Progress in Asian social psychology (pp. 135–146). Singapore: Wiley.

Hong, Y., Chiu, C., Fu, H., and Tong, Y. (1996). Effects of self-categorization on intergroup perceptions: The case of Hong Kong facing 1997. Presentation at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Society. San Francisco, CA.

Hong, Y., Ip, G., Chiu, C., Morris, M. W., and Menon, T. (2001). Cultural identity and dynamic construction of the self: Collective duties and individual rights in Chinese and American students. Social Cognition, 19, 251–268.

Hong, Y., Liao, H., Chan, G., Wong, R. Y. M., Chie, C., Ip, G. W., Fu, H., and Hansen, I. G. (2006). Temporal causal links between outgroup attitudes and social categorization: The case of Hong Kong 1997 transition. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 9, 265–288.

Hughes, M., and Chu, D. (November 6, 1993). Disillusioned migrants seek jobs at home. South China Morning Post.

(p.323) Hull, P. V. (1987). Bilingualism: Two languages, two personalities? Resources in education. Educational Resources Clearinghouse on Education. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Huppatz, D. J. (2006). The chameleon and the pearl of the orient. Design Issues, 22, 64–76.

International Organization for Migration. (2004). Return migration: Policies and practices in Europe. Geneva: International Organization for Migration.

Iredale, R., Guo, F., and Rozario, S. (2003). Return migration in the Asia Pacific. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Ishiguro, K. (2000). When we were orphans. New York: Knopf.

Iwamasa, G.Y., and Kooreman, H. (1995). Brief Symptom Inventory scores of Asian, Asian-American, and European-American college students. Cultural Diversity and Mental Health, 1, 149–157.

Japanese children overseas. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B.

Johnson, G. E., and Lary, D. (1994). Hong Kong migration to Canada: The background. In R. Skeldon (ed.), Reluctant exiles? Migration from Hong Kong and the new overseas Chinese (pp. 87–97). New York: M. E. Sharpe, and Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Kang, K. C. (June 29, 1997). Chinese in the Southlands: A changing picture. Los Angeles Times.

Kang, T. S. (1972). Name and group identification. Journal of Social Psychology, 86, 159–160.

Kanno, Y. (2003). Negotiating bilingual and bicultural identities: Japanese returnees between two worlds. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Karetzky, P. (2001). A modern literati: The art of Xu Bing. Oriental Art, 47, 47–62.

Kasinitz, P., Waters, M. C., Mollenkopf, J. H., and Anil, M. (2002). Transnationalism and the children of immigrants in contemporary New York. In P. Levitt and M. Waters (eds.), The changing face of home: The transnational lives of the second generation (pp. 96–122). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Kauppi, M. V., and Viotti, P. (1992). The global philosophers: World politics in Western thought. Issues in World Politics series. New York: Lexington Books.

Kee, P. K., and Skeldon, R. (1994). The migration and settlement of Hong Kong Chinese in Australia. In R. Skeldon (ed.), Reluctant exiles? Migration from Hong Kong and the new overseas Chinese (pp. 183–196). New York: M. E. Sharpe, and Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Kidder, L. H. (1992). Requirements for being “Japanese.” International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 16, 383–393.

Kim, Y.Y. (1988). Communication and cross-cultural adaptation: An integrative theory. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

King, A. Y. C., and Bond, M. H. (1985). The Confucian paradigm of man: A sociological view. In W. S. Teng and D. Y. H. We (eds.), Chinese culture and mental health: Overview (pp. 29–45). New York: Academic Press.

King, R., Strachan, A., and Martimer, J. (1985). The urban dimension of European return migration: The case of Bari, Southern Italy. Urban Studies, 22, 214–235.

Koh, T. A. (1991). Summary report on workshop on perceptions of migrants in literature. Paper presented at the International Conference on Migration, Centre for Advanced Studies, National University of Singapore, February 7–9.

(p.324) Kuah, K. E., and Wong, S. L. (2001). Dialect and territory-based associations: Cultural and identity brokers in Hong Kong. In P. T. Lee (ed.), Hong Kong reintegrating with China: Political, cultural and social dimensions (pp. 203–217). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Kuhn, M., and McPartland, T. (1954). An empirical investigation of self-attitudes. American Sociological Review, 19, 68–76.

Kung, W. W., Hung, S. L., and Chan, C. L. (2004). How the socio-cultural context shapes women’s divorce experience in Hong Kong. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 35(1), 33–50.

Kwan, K. L. K. (1997). Ethnic identity and cultural adjustment difficulties of Chinese-Americans. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 57(7-B), 4784.

Kyntaja, E. (1998). Ethnic remigration from the former Soviet Union to Finland: Patterns of ethnic identity and acculturation among the Ingrian Finns. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, 34, 102–113.

LaFromboise, T., Coleman, H. K., and Gerton, J. (1993). Psychological impact of biculturalism: Evidence and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 395–412.

Laguerre, M. (1998). Diasporic citizenship: Haitian Americans in transnational America. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Lalwani, A. K., Shavitt, S., and Johnson, T. (2006). What is the relation between cultural orientation and socially desirable responding? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 165–178.

Larmer, B. (July 31, 2000). Home at last. Newsweek International, 32.

Lau, J. H. C. (June 24, 2007). Drawn by vibrant city, Mainlanders reshape Hong Kong. The New York Times.

Lau, S. (1981). Utilitarianistic familialism: The basis of political stability. In A. Y. C. King and R. L. P. Lee (eds.), Social life and development in Hong Kong (pp. 195–216). Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.

Lau, S. K., and Kuan, H. C. (1988). The ethos of Hong Kong Chinese. Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong.

Lau, S. K., Lee, M. K., Wan, P. S., and Wong, S. L. (eds.) (1991). Indicators of social development: Hong Kong, 1988. Hong Kong: Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies, the Chinese University of Hong Kong.

Lee, F. L. F. (2006). Collective efficacy, support for democratization, and political participation in Hong Kong. International Journal of Public Opinion, 18, 297–317.

Leong, C., and Ward, C. (2000). Identity conflict in sojourners. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 24, 763–776.

Ley, D., and Kobayashi, A. (2005). Back to Hong Kong: Return migration or transnational sojourn? Global Networks, 5, 111–127.

Li, J., and Liu, D. (1999). Analysis of demand for foreign education in China. Consumer Demands and Economy, 5, 20–28.

Li, P. S. (2005). The rise and fall of Chinese immigration to Canada: Newcomers from Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China and Mainland China, 1980–2000. International Migration, 43, 9–32.

Lieber, E., Chin, S., Nihira, K., and Mink, I. T. (2001). Holding on and letting go: Identity and acculturation among Chinese immigrants. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 7, 247–261.

(p.325) Lin, C. C., and Fu, V. R. (1990). A comparison of child-rearing practices among Chinese, immigrant Chinese, and Caucasian-American parents. Child Development, 61, 429–433.

Lin, X. (2004). Globalism or nationalism? Cai Guoqiang, Zhang Huan, and Xu Bing in New York. Third Text, 18(4), 279–295.

Liu, M., and Hewitt, D. (August 18/25, 2008). Rise of the sea turtles. Newsweek, 28–31.

Lui, C. (2004). Being and nothingness. Print, 58(2), 90–95.

Luo, K., Guo, F., and Huang, P. (2003). China: Government policies and emerging trends of reversal of the brain drain. In R. Iredale, F. Guo, and S. Rozario (eds.), Return migration in the Asia Pacific (pp. 88–111). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.

MacFarquhar, R. (February 9, 1980). The post-Confucian challenge. The Economist, 67–72.

Mak, A. (2001). Relocating careers: Hong Kong professionals and managers in Australia. Hong Kong: Centre of Asian Studies, The University of Hong Kong.

Markus, H. R., and Kunda, Z. (1986). Stability and malleability of the self-concept. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 858–866.

Masuda, T., and Nisbett, R. E. (2001). Attending holistically vs. analytically: Comparing the context sensitivity of Japanese and Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 922–934.

Matsumoto, D., Yoo, S. H., Anguas-Wong, A. M., Arriola, M., Ataca, B., Bond, M. H., et al. (2008). Mapping expressive differences around the world: The relationship between emotional display rules and individualism versus collectivism. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 39, 55–74.

Matza, M. (November 16, 2008). As US economy sours, immigrants head home. The Philadelphia Inquirer, A01.

McDonagh, M. (July 20, 2006). The tide has turned for county plagued by poverty and forced emigration. The Irish Times.

McKenzie, S. (May 24, 1994). Emigrants’ return sparks fears. South China Morning Post.

Meredith, R. (July 23, 2007). Back to India. Forbes, 86–95.

Miller, E. (January 1973). Return and nonreturn in-migration. Growth and Change, 3–9.

Mindlin, A. (November 11, 2007). A homeland beckons. The New York Times, section 14CY, p. 4.

Ming Pao (April 7, 1994). Vancouver’s astronaut families. p. A11.

Minoura, Y. (1988). The psychological reorganization of overseas experience after returning to Japan: A symbolic interactionist approach to returnees. Shakai Shinrigaku Kenkyuu, 32, 3–11.

Mishra, P. (February 12, 2006). Wounded by the West: The inheritance of loss. The New York Times.

Moore, C. A. (1967). Introduction: The humanistic Chinese mind. In C. A. Moore, The Chinese mind: Essentials of Chinese philosophy and culture (pp. 1–10). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Morris, J. (1989). Hong Kong. NewYork: Vintage Books.

Morris, M. W., and Peng, K. (1994). Culture and cause: American and Chinese attributions for social and physical events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 949–971.

(p.326) Nagao, C. T. (1998). Where to belong? An empirical study of the cultural identity of Japanese children overseas. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 58(12-B), 6848.

Ng, S. H., and Zhu, Y. (2001). Attributing causality and remembering events in individual- and group-acting situations: A Beijing, Hong Kong, and Wellington comparison. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 4, 39–52.

Ng, W. C. (1998). Becoming “Chinese Canadian”: The genesis of a cultural category. In E. Sinn (ed.), The last half century of Chinese overseas (pp. 206–218). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Nisbett, R. E. (2003). The geography of thought: How Asians and Westerners think differently and why. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Olds, K. (1998). Globalization and urban change: Tales from Vancouver via Hong Kong. Urban Geography, 19, 360–385.

Olesen, H. (2002). Migration, return, and development: An institutional perspective. International Migration, 40, 125–149.

Ong, A. (1999). Flexible citizenship: The cultural logics of transnationality. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Ong, J. H., Chan, K. B., and Chew, S. B. (eds.) (1995). Crossing borders: Transmigration in Asia Pacific. New York: Prentice-Hall.

Oyserman, D. (1993). The lens of personhood: Viewing the self, others, and confict in a multicultural society. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 6, 993–1009.

Pedraza, S. (2006). Assimilation or transnationalism? Conceptual models of the immigrant experience in America. In R. Mahalingam (ed.), Cultural psychology of immigrants (pp. 33–54). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Pekerti, A., and Thomas, D. C. (2003). Communication in intercultural interaction: An empirical investigation of idiocentric and sociocentric communication styles. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34, 139–154.

Peng, K., and Nisbett, R. E. (1999). Culture, dialectics, and reasoning about contradiction. American Psychologist, 54, 741–754.

Pe-Pua, R., Mitchell, C., Castles, S., and Iredale, R. (1998). Astronaut families and parachute children. In E. Sinn (ed.), The last half century of Chinese overseas (pp. 279–298). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Petras, E., and Kousis, M. (1988). Returning migrant characteristics and labor market demand in Greece. International Migration Review, 22, 586–608.

Phinney, J. (1995). Ethnic identity and self-esteem: A review and integration. In A. Padilla (ed.), Hispanic psychology (pp. 57–70). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Phinney, J. (2003). Ethnic identity and acculturation. In K. Chun, P. Organista, and G. Marin (eds.), Acculturation: Advances in theory. Measurement and applied research (pp. 63–81). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Pookong, K., and Skeldon, R. (1994). The migration and settlement of Hong Kong Chinese in Australia. In R. Skeldon (ed.), Reluctant exiles? Migration from Hong Kong and the new overseas Chinese (pp. 183–196). New York: M. E. Sharpe, and Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Ralston, D. A., Gustafson, D. J., Elsass, P. M., Cheung, F., and Terpstra. R. H. (1992). Eastern values: A comparison of managers in the United States, Hong Kong and the People’s Republic of China. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 664–671.

Reid, T. R. (1999). Confucius lives next door. New York: Vintage Books.

(p.327) Rosenthal, D. A., and Feldman, S. S. (1996). Crossing the border: Chinese adolescents in the West. In L. Sing (ed.), Growing up the Chinese way: Chinese child and adolescent development (pp. 287–320). Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.

Roth, J. (2002). Brokered homeland: Japanese Brazilian migrants in Japan. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Rudmin, F. W. (2003). Critical history of the acculturation psychology of assimilation, separation, integration, and marginalization. Review of General Psychology, 7, 3–37.

Sachse, W. L. (1948). The migration of New Englanders to England, 1640–60. American Historical Review, 53, 252–254.

Sahin, N. (1990). Re-entry and the academic and psychological problems of the second generation. Psychology and Developing Societies, 2, 165–182.

Sakamoto, I. (2006). When family enters the picture: The model of cultural negotiation and gendered experiences of Japanese academic sojourners in the United States. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 12(3), 558–577.

Salaff, J. W., and Wong, S. L. (2000). Migration and identities in Hong Kong’s transition. In F. Ash, B. Hook, and R. Porter (eds.), Hong Kong in transition: The handover years (pp. 247–268). London: Macmillan.

Salaff, J. W., Shik, A., and Greve, A. (2008). Like sons and daughters of Hong Kong: The return of the young generation. The China Review: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Greater China, 8, 31–58.

Sasagawa, S., Toyoda, H., and Sakano, Y. (2006). The acquisition of cultural values in Japanese returnee students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30, 333–343.

Schmiedeck, R. A. (1973). Motives for emigration and remigration in Austrian scientists. Koelner Zeitschrift fur Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 25, 594–605.

Shih, S. F. (2001). The relations among acculturation, cultural values, and counseling expectations among three Chinese American groups. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 62(1-A), 91.

Shweder, R. A. (1991). Thinking through cultures: Expeditions with cultural psychology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Shweder, R. A., and Miller, J. G. (1985). The social construction of the person: How is it possible? In K. J. Gergen and K. E. Davis (eds.), The social construction of the persons (pp. 41–69). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Simal, B. (2004). “Moving selves”: Immigration and transnationalism in Gish Jen and Chitra Divakaruni. In B. Simal and E. Marino, Transnational, national, and personal voices: New perspectives on Asian American and Asian diasporic women writers (pp. 151–173). Piscataway, NJ: Transaction.

Singelis, T. (1994). The measurement of independence self-construals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 580–591.

Singelis, T. M., Bond, M. H., Sharkey, W.F., and Lai, C. S. (1999). Unpackaging culture’s influence on self-esteem and embarrassability: The role of self-construal. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 30, 315–341.

Sinn, E. (1995). Emigration from Hong Kong before 1941: Organization and impact. In R. Skeldon (ed.), Emigration from Hong Kong: Tendencies and impacts (pp. 35–50). Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.

Siu, H. F. (1999). Hong Kong: Cultural kaleidoscope on a world landscape. In G. G. Hamilton (ed.), Cosmopolitan capitalists (pp. 100–117). Seattle: University of Washington Press.

(p.328) Skeldon, R. (ed.) (1994). Reluctant exiles? Migration from Hong Kong and the new overseas Chinese. New York: M. E. Sharpe, and Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Skeldon, R. (ed.) (1995). Emigration from Hong Kong: Tendencies and impacts. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.

Soh, B. E. (2003). The impact of acculturation on the level of depression among Chinese-American women. Dissertation Abstract International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 63(8-B), 3939.

South China Morning Post. (April 22, 1990). Important to lure home the emigrants.

Steiner, H., and Haas, K. (1995). Cross-cultural design: Communicating in the global marketplace. London: Thames and Hudson.

Storti, C. (2001). The art of coming home. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.

Suda, N. (1999). Issues of adjustment abroad and readjustment to their home country of Japanese spouses. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 3, 75–86.

Sung, B. L. (1985). Bicultural conflicts in Chinese immigrant children. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 16, 255–269.

Sussman, N. M. (1985). Corporate re-entry: A comparative look at returning home. Paper presented at the Japan Psychological Association, Tokyo, Japan, July.

Sussman, N. M. (2000). The dynamic nature of cultural identity throughout cultural transitions: Why home is not so sweet. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4, 355–373.

Sussman, N. M. (2001). Repatriation transitions: Psychological preparedness, cultural identity, and attributions among American managers. International Journal of Intercultural Relation, 25, 109–123.

Sussman, N. M. (2002). Testing the cultural identity model of the cultural transition cycle: Sojourners return home. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26, 391–408.

Sussman, N. M. (2007). Identity shifts as a consequence of crossing cultures: Hong Kong Chinese migrants return home. In K. B. Chan, J. W. Walls, and D. Hayward (eds.), East-West identities: Globalization, localization, and hybridization (pp. 121–147). Leiden: Brill.

Sussman, N. M., and Sanzari, J. (2007). The effects of self-construal on re-entry adjustment of American study abroad students. Unpublished manuscript.

Sussman, N. M., Truong, N., and Lim, J. (2007). Who experiences “America the beautiful”? Ethnicity moderating the effect of acculturation on body image and risks for eating disorders among immigrant women. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 31, 29–49.

Tajfel, H. (1978). Social categorization, social identity, and social comparison. In H. Tajfel (ed.), Differentiation between social groups: Studies in the social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 254–267). London: Academic Press.

Tan, J., Hartel, C., Panipucci, D., and Strybosch, V. (2005). The effect of emotions in cross-cultural expatriate experiences. Cross-Cultural Management, 13, 4–15.

Tannenbaum, M. (2007). Back and forth: Immigrants’ stories of migration and return. International Migration, 45(5), 147–175.

Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Tsay, C.-L. (2003). Taiwan: Significance, characteristics and policies on return skilled migration. In R. Iredale, F. Guo, and S. Rozario (eds.), Return migration in the Asia Pacific (pp. 112–135). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.

(p.329) Tsuda, T. (2003). Strangers in the ethnic homeland: Japanese-Brazilians return migration in transnational perspective. New York: Columbia University Press.

Turner, J. C., Hogg, M. A., Oakes, P. J., Reicher, S. D., and Wetherell, M. (1987). Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theory. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

UN Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (2004). World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision. http://esa.un.org/unpp.

Van Oudenhoven, J. P. (2006). Immigrants. In D. L. Sam and J. W. Berry (eds.), The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology (pp. 163–180). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Virtanen, K. (1979). Settlement or return: Finnish emigrants (1860–1930) in the international overseas return migration movement. Turku, Finland: Migration Institute.

Waldorf, B. (1995). Determinants of international return migration intentions. Professional Geographer, 47, 125–136.

Wallis, K. (July 13, 2004). Hong Kong returnees on the increase. South China Morning Post.

Wang, G.W. (1991). China and the Chinese overseas. Singapore: Times Academic Press.

Wang, G.W. (1998). Upgrading the migrant: Neither huaqiao nor huaren. In E. Sinn (ed.), The last half century of Chinese overseas (pp. 15–34). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Wang, L. L. (1991). Roots and changing identity of the Chinese in the United States. Daedalus, 120, 181–207.

Ward, C., and Kennedy, A. (1999). The measurement of sociocultural adaptation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 23, 659–677.

Ward, C., and Rana-Deuba, A. (1999). Acculturation and adaptation revisited. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 30, 422–442.

Ward, C., Bochner, S., and Furnham, A. (2001). The psychology of culture shock (2nd edition). East Sussex, UK: Routledge.

White, M. (1992). The Japanese overseas: Can they go home again? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Wilford, J. N. (2008). Pacifc islanders’ ancestry emerges in genetic study. The New York Times, A6.

Wilhelm, K., and Biers, D. (15 June 2000). No place like home. Far East Economic Review, 72–75.

Wong, S. L. (1988). Emigrant entrepreneurs: Shanghai industrialists in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.

Wong, S. L. (1999). Deciding to stay, deciding to move, deciding not to decide. In G. G. Hamilton (ed.), Cosmopolitan capitalists (pp. 135–151). Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Wong, T. W. P. (1991). Inequality, stratification and mobility. In S. K. Lau, et al. (eds.), Indicators of social development: Hong Kong, 1988 (pp. 145–171). Hong Kong: Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies, the Chinese University of Hong Kong.

Wu, A. (July 12, 2000). Why this boomerang happily came back. The Standard (Hong Kong).

Wu, C. T., Ip, D. F., Inglis, C., Kawakami, I., and Duivenvoorden, K. (1998). Settlement experiences of recent Chinese immigrants in Australia. In E. Sinn (ed.), The last half century of Chinese overseas (pp. 391–422). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

(p.330) Wu, H. (2002). Contesting global/local: Chinese experimental art in the 1990s. Orientations, 33(9), 62–67.

Wyman, M. (1993). Round-trip to America: The immigrants return to Europe, 1880–1930. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Yang, K. S. (1986). Chinese personality and its change. In M. H. Bond (ed.), The psychology of the Chinese people (pp. 106–170). Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.

Yik, M. S. M., Bond, M. H., and Paulhus, D. L. (1998). Do Chinese self-enhance or self-efface? It’s a matter of domain. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 399–406.

York, G. (August 5, 2004). Canadian opts for Hong Kong vote. Globe and Mail (Toronto).

Zhang, A. (1998). Timothy Mo. In M. Moseley (ed.), Dictionary of literary biography. Vol. 194: British novelists since 1960 (pp. 216–219). Asheville, NC: Gale Research.

Zheng, X., and Berry, J. W. (1991). Psychological adaptation of Chinese sojourners in Canada. International Journal of Psychology, 26, 451–470.

South China Morning Post (April 22, 1990.) Important to lure home the emigrants.

Zweig, D. (1997). Return or not to return? Politics vs. economics in China’s brain drain. Studies in Comparative International Development, 32, 92–125.