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The Virgin Mary and Catholic Identities in Chinese History$
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Jeremy Clarke

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9789888139996

Published to Hong Kong Scholarship Online: May 2014

DOI: 10.5790/hongkong/9789888139996.001.0001

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After the treaties

After the treaties

(p.51) 2 After the treaties
The Virgin Mary and Catholic Identities in Chinese History

Jeremy Clarke

Hong Kong University Press

After the Opium Wars and the imposition of treaties, the Chinese Catholic church moved from being persecuted to being protected by foreign powers. Foreign law was implemented as foreign devotions were introduced. These were especially, but not only, French in origin given the large presence of French congregations among the newly arrived missionaries. French Catholics naturally brought devotional images with them including the Miraculous Medal and Our Lady of Lourdes. These devotions became widespread throughout the Chinese church, obscuring the previous Chinese-style images and representations.

Keywords:   Opium Wars, French protectorate, dogma of the Immaculate Conception, Jesuits, Chinese Rites Controversy, China, Virgin Mary, Catholic, Christianity

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