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Enclave to UrbanityCanton, Foreigners, and Architecture from the Late Eighteenth to the Early Twentieth Centuries$
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Johnathan Andrew Farris

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9789888208876

Published to Hong Kong Scholarship Online: January 2017

DOI: 10.5790/hongkong/9789888208876.001.0001

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The Thirteen Factories

The Thirteen Factories

An Architecture of Sino-Western Collaboration and Confrontation

Chapter:
(p.8) Chapter 1 The Thirteen Factories
Source:
Enclave to Urbanity
Author(s):

Johnathan Andrew Farris

Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:10.5790/hongkong/9789888208876.003.0001

Chapter 1 covers the first of the three distinct phases of foreign habitation in Guangzhou, the Thirteen Factories, characterized by Westerners and Chinese employees living in close quarters in structures closely following adjacent buildings in a Chinese business district, which were part of the Cantonese vernacular tradition. By the late eighteenth century, these buildings had acquired Western façades using the vocabulary of Neoclassical architecture. While initially these buildings were occupied seasonally by the employees of various national joint stock “East India” companies, they would begin increasingly to be occupied by “resident” merchants whose working year became longer and longer in the nineteenth century.

Keywords:   Guangzhou, China, Architectural history, Culture, Social history, eighteenth century, Enclave, the Thirteen Factories era

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