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Enclave to UrbanityCanton, Foreigners, and Architecture from the Late Eighteenth to the Early Twentieth Centuries$

Johnathan Andrew Farris

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9789888208876

Published to Hong Kong Scholarship Online: January 2017

DOI: 10.5790/hongkong/9789888208876.001.0001

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(p.245) Index

(p.245) Index

Source:
Enclave to Urbanity
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press

Note: Page numbers set in italics refer to illustrative material (figures and plates). Numbers beginning with “Pl.” refer to plate numbers of drawings and other illustrations in the insert.

A. Abdoolrahim (firm), 197
Abbott, Edward, 177
A Ching, 81
Aesthetic Movement, 117, 119, 119 fig. 2.31
Agricultural Bank of China, 231
Aiqun Hotel, 214–15, 229 fig. 5.3, 231
Aling (contractor), 93, 99–101, 107–8, Pl. 17
American architecture, 139, 139 fig. 2.36, 198, 198 fig. 4.7, 208
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, 127
American concession, 98–101, 100 fig. 2.21, 105, 106–7, Pl. 19, Pl. 20
American consulate, buildings of:
location of, 86, 86 fig. 2.8, 101;
two-story, 113–14, 115 fig. 2.28, 116;
usually rented, 98
American consulate, social activities at, 120, 122–23
American Factory:
Chinese name of, 10n6;
cross-cultural interactions at, 40;
destruction and rebuilding of, 18;
interior of, 19–20;
location of, 10;
residents of, 13;
social activities at, 37–38
American Garden:
construction and features of, 17, 48–49, 62, Pl. 5, Pl. 89;
American Presbyterian mission efforts, 128–30, 129 fig. 2.32, 173, 205, 211, 231
Americans:
as flourishing traders in Thirteen Factories era, 12;
background of Thirteen Factories merchants, 35;
desire for influence on early twentieth-century Guangzhou, 226;
relations with British people, 42, 101, 144, Pl. 14;
residences during Thirteen Factories era, 13;
status during Opium War, 58;
treaty between Chinese and, 166
American trolley suburbs, 218
American vs. Chinese civil service, 185
Andersen, Meyer, & Co., 196–97, 196 fig. 4.5, 216–17
apartment buildings, 228, 229 fig. 5.2
Arlington, L. C., 121–22
Arnhold, Karberg & Co., 90, 91 fig. 2.13, 192
Arrow War:
aftermath of, 66, 66 fig. 1.4;
changes wrought by, 167;
concessions made after, 74–76, 84, 101, 165;
defined, 3;
maps produced during, 167, 168 fig. 3.3, 180;
motives for, 4, 166;
tourism during, 152;
violence during (p.246) and immediately after, 64–65. See also Opium War
Arts and Crafts movement, 208 fig. 4.13, 209, 210
Asiatic Petroleum, 194, 194 fig. 4.3
Au Fungchi, 133–34
Augustine Heard & Co.:
American concession and, 106, Pl. 20;
in Thirteen Factories, 28–30, 35–36, 59–60, 61, Pl. 12;
on Honam, 70;
Ball, B. L., 150, 157, 158
Ballou, Maturin, 184
Bank of Taiwan, 197
Banque de L’Indo-Chine, 96, 97 fig. 2.19
Barneby, W. Henry, 176, 178
baroque revival, 89, 89 fig. 2.11
barriers. See gates and guardhouses
Beaux-Arts architecture:
in late twentieth century, 230;
in Mao era, 228;
in schools, 205, 206 fig. 4.11, 208, 210, 219;
Bell Pavilion, 209
Beth Eden Compound, 138–39, 139 fig. 2.36
Birley & Co., 96
boat people, 43–44, 53, 83
bodies, buildings as surrogate, 54–55, 57–59, 62, 142–43
boundaries, contesting and violating, 49, 52–53, 143. See also regulations on foreigners’ movements; segregation
Bowring, Lewis Bentham, 149
Boxer Rebellion indemnity fund, 216
boys (house servants), role of, 33, 107
Brassey, Mrs., 83–84
British concession. See Shamian
British consulate buildings:
at Whampoa, 99;
in Thirteen Factories era, 17;
nineteenth-century Shamian, 79–80, 81, 82 fig. 2.7, 83, 141–42;
twentieth-century Shamian, 199, 200 fig. 4.8–4.9, 201–2, 201 fig. 4.10;
British East India Company, 12, 35, 54–55. See also British Garden; New English Factory; Old English Factory
British Garden:
construction of, 50–51;
destruction of, 54–55, 59, 101;
British Garden City movement, 218
British people:
background of Thirteen Factories merchants, 35;
classism and racism of, 202;
desire for influence on early twentieth-century Guangzhou, 226;
relations with Americans, 42, 101, 144, Pl. 14;
residences during Thirteen Factories era, 13;
violence against and by, 54–55 (See also Arrow War; Opium War)
British Wesleyan Methodist Mission, 93–94, 94 fig. 2.16, 133, 138
Browne, H. Davenport, 203
Brumstedt, Carl, 76, 77 fig. 2.5, 79–80
Buddhism vs. Catholicism, 149–50
Buddhist iconography, 132, 132 fig. 2.34
Buddhist temples. See temples, Buddhist
building practices and techniques, Chinese, 93, 136, Pl. 17
Bull, Isaac M., 48
Butterfield & Swire (firm), 71–72, 73 fig. 2.3, 74, 191, 191 fig. 4.1
Canton. See Guangzhou
Canton, City of the Rams (Ng Yong Sang), 223–24
Canton Christian College. See Lingnan University
Canton Club, 94, 95 fig. 2.18, 96, 126
Cantonese, use of term, 1n3
Cantonese building techniques, 136
Cantonese people:
feelings towards Christianity, 132;
places of residence in Thirteen Factories era, 9;
relations with Hakka, 140–41;
self-representation of their city to tourists, 181, 220–25, 231. (p.247) See also Sino-foreign interactions and relationships
Cantonese vernacular design:
current example of, Pl. 6;
in early twentieth century, 227;
in shops, 160;
in Thirteen Factories, 14, 15, 17–18, 19, Pl. 2, Pl. 1011;
Ocean Banner Buddhist monastery and, 149;
on Honam, 68–71, 69 fig. 2.1;
on Shamian, 81, 82 fig. 2.6;
Westerners’ view of, 23. See also Chinese architecture
Canton Garden fund, 101
Canton-Hankow railway, 217
Canton Hospital, 128–30, 129 fig. 2.32, 231
Canton-Kowloon Railway, 217–18, 219, 230
Canton Repository, 59, 61
Canton-Shamshui Railroad, 217
Carlowitz & Co., 94, 95 fig. 2.17, 95 fig. 2.18, 96, 126
Carpenter’s Square, 163
Carrall, J. W., 173, 174
Catholic cathedral:
as show of Western power, 131, 140, 144, 233;
construction and features of, 130–32, 131 fig. 2.33, 132 fig. 2.34;
current state of, 231–32;
map showing location of, 169 fig. 3.4;
violence and, 140–41, 233
Catholicism, 132–33, 149–50
cemetery at Whampoa, 42, Pl. 15
Certeau, Michel de, 145
chair bearers, 177–78, 179–80
Chalmers, John, 133–34
Changhi (bund), 213–16, 220
Chartered Bank of India, Australia, and China, 197
Chen Clan Academy, 221–22
Cheng Tien-tow, 216
China Mail, The, 86, 120, 142
Chinese, use of term, 1n3
Chinese architects and municipal officials, American-educated, 216–17, 225n122
Chinese architecture:
blurs with Western, 212, 219;
in early twentieth century, 215 fig. 4.17, 216, 226–28;
Chinese building practice, 93, Pl. 17
Chinese government, exams for posts in, 184–86
Chinese Repository, 17, 47
Chinese Revival, 217
chinoiserie, 149, 157
chop-stick dinners, 152–56, 159
Chowchow Factory:
Chinese employees’ actions during violence against Thirteen Factories, 60, 61;
Chinese name of, 10n6;
destruction and rebuilding of, 18;
façade of, 15, Pl. 2;
hospital in, 46, 127;
location of, 10;
residents of, 13
Christianity, Chinese people’s feelings towards, 132. See also missionaries
Chunqua’s Hong. See Mingqua’s Hong
Citic Plaza, 230
class conflict, 64
classicism:
elsewhere in early twentieth century, 214, 215 fig. 4.17, 226–27;
Cleverly, Charles St. George, 79
climate, architectural accommodations for:
in Thirteen Factories, 23, 26, 30;
on Shamian, 111, 112 fig. 2.26, 113, 114 fig. 2.27, 195, Pl. 25
Cohn, Bernard, 180
cohong merchants. See hong merchants
collaboration, Sino-foreign, 8, 66, 210–11, 232, 233
compradors, 22, 31, 107
Cooke, George Wingrove, 102
cooks, 32
cooleys, 22, 32–33, 32n82
Coolidge (American merchant), 58–59
Cree, Edward H., 165
Creek Factory, 10, 10n6, 17, 25, 58, 59–62
(p.248) cross-cultural relations, approach to, 1, 66. See also Sino-foreign interactions and relationships
Crow, Carl, 220
customs houses, 47
Danby, W., 193, 194 fig. 4.3
Danish Factory, 10, 10n6, 17
Davenport Browne, H., 203
Daxin (Tai Sun) Co., 213–14, 214 fig. 4.16, 231, Pl. 26
Deacon & Co., 81, 82 fig. 2.6, 96, 113, 114 fig. 2.27
desegregation:
brought about by missionaries, 127, 139;
during Thirteen Factories era, 12–13, 24–25, 28;
dining rooms in Thirteen Factories, 25–26
domesticity, 105, 121. See also families
Dongshan (eastern suburb), 7, 138, 218–20, 218n94, 231, 27–29
Downing, Charles, 24, 32, 33–34, 43–44
Dr. Sun Memorial Library, 224
Dutch East India Company, 13
Dutch Factory:
Chinese name of, 10n6;
destruction and rebuilding of, 16–17, 58, 59–62;
destruction of, 17;
location of, 10;
residents of, 13;
verandah of, 14, 16, 18, 26
eastern suburb. See Dongshan (eastern suburb)
Edmunds, Charles, 207–8
Edmunds, J. R., 205, 206 fig. 4.11
Edwardian architecture, 191 fig. 4.1, 193 fig. 4.2
Eighth Ward Chapel, 133–34
employer-employee relationships, Sino-foreign, 61, 90, 90 fig. 2.12, 124–26, 143. See also living and working quarters of Chinese employees
Examination Hall (Gongyuan), 184–86, Pl. 24
façades:
on Honam, Pl. 16;
on Thirteen Factories, 14–18, Pl. 2, Pl. 4, Pl. 10
families, foreigners’, 79, 84–85, 108, 110–11, 110 fig. 2.25, 119. See also Western women
Far Eastern Review, The, 213, 216
Fati:
flower gardens at, 146, 150–51, 152 fig. 3.2;
map of, 7
Field, Henry M., 185, 188
fires. See violence
flags:
after demise of Thirteen Factories, 65, 66 fig. 1.4;
as indicating consul’s residence, 12–13, Pl. 1, Pl. 4, Pl. 8, Pl. 10;
violence against, 59, 62
Flower Pagoda, 221
Forbes, Paul S., 51–52, 158
Forbes, Robert Bennet, 37–38, 155–56
foreigners, departure and return in twentieth century, 227, 230, 232. See also names of specific nationalities; regulations on foreigners’ movements; Sino-foreign interactions and relationships
Franck, Harry A., 219, 226
Franco-Chinese War, 131, 140, 141, 142–43
French Catholic mission, 130. See also Catholic cathedral
French concession, 75–76, 96, 97 fig. 2.19–2.20, 98, 106
French consulate buildings. See yamen: as British and French consulate buildings
French Factory, 10, 10n6, 13, 16, 17
French Gothic architecture, 132, 132 fig. 2.34
French people, 131, 166. See also Arrow War
furniture and interior decor:
in hong merchant’s house, 155, 158–59;
in Thirteen Factories, 23–24, 26, Pl. 11
gardens:
Fati flower, 146, 150–51, 152 fig. 3.2;
in yamen, 103, 103 fig. 2.22, (p.249) 104 fig. 2.23;
on Shamian, 84, 96, 97 fig. 2.19, 192;
roof, 192, 213, Pl. 26;
typical features of Lingnan, 154, 158, Pl. 21. See also American Garden; British Garden
garden villas of hong merchants, 152–55, 156–59, 167, Pl. 21
gate-keepers in Thirteen Factories, 22
gates and guardhouses, 46, 47, 52, 64, 83, 101
godowns, 20, 21 fig. 1.3, 22, 72, 73 fig. 2.3, Pl. 16
Gongyuan (Examination Hall), 184–86, Pl. 24
Gordon-Cumming, Constance F.:
on A Cum and Archdeacon Gray, 175;
on Guangzhou street life, 187;
on Shamian, 67, 83, 85;
on Temple of the Five Genii, 182;
on water clock, 184
Gough, Hugh, 59
Grant, Ulysses S., 159
Gray, Archdeacon John Henry:
as tour guide, 171, 183;
friendship with Chinese, 123–24, 159, 170–71;
incident with chair bearers, 177–78;
relationship with Chinese servants, 125;
tourist guidebook written by, 170–72, 175, 180–81, 187
Gray, Mrs. J. H.:
friendship with Chinese, 123–24, 159;
on chair bearers, 177–78;
on Chinese servants, 124–25;
on Christ Church parsonage, 78, 116–17;
on Shamian’s vegetation, 83
Greaves, J. R., 72, 74
Greek Revival, 16
Guangxiaosi (Buddhist temple), 221
Guangzhou:
approach to, 3–6;
current state of older buildings in, 231–32;
early history of, 2–3;
late twentieth-century architecture in, 230–31;
never a colony, 145;
population distribution and numbers for, 9–10, 79;
guidebooks. See tourist guidebooks
Guide to the City and Suburbs of Canton, A. See Kerr, J. G.
Hakkas, 132, 140–41
Heard, Augustine, 49, 51, 59. See also Augustine Heard & Co.
Heard, John, 25, 29, 35–36, 46, 59–60, 61
Henry, B. C., 128–29
Hermitte, Achille-Antoine, 131 fig. 2.33, 132, 132 fig. 2.34
Hinchliff, Thomas Woodbine, 175, 183, 188–89
Hog Lane, 41, 46, 61, 64–65, 162
Honam, 67–72, 69 fig. 2.1, 73 fig. 2.3, 74, 98;
architectural influence on Shamian, 81;
Beth Eden Compound on, 138–39, 139 fig. 2.36;
climate inconveniences of, 78;
drawings of, Pl. 16;
houses foreigners’ warehouses in Thirteen Factories era, 28;
Mao-era architecture on, 228;
map of, 7;
Opium War concessions and, 166;
tourist sites on, 146, 153;
university on, 205
Honam Chapel, United Brethren’s, 137
Hong Kong, 2, 3–4, 67, 85, 197, 228
Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, 195, 195 fig. 4.4, 197
hong merchants:
as supervisors of builders, 29;
compradors and, 31;
cooleys’ accommodations in buildings of, 22;
defined, 17;
houses and gardens as tourist sites, 152–55, 156–59, 167, 187, Pl. 21;
location of premises, 10;
Thirteen Factories–era relations with foreigners, 3, 25, 38–40. See also Howqua (hong merchant); Paunkeiqua (hong merchant)
Hotel Asia, 213–14, 214 fig. 4.16, Pl. 26
Howqua (hong merchant):
garden villa as tourist site, 152–53, 187, Pl. 21;
garden (p.250) villa location, 68;
involvement in violent incident, 55;
social status of, 153n27
Howqua family, Grays’ friendship with, 123–24, 152n25
Huadi. See Fati
Huanghuagang (72 Martyrs Park), 224–25, 224 fig. 4.19, 225n122
Hübner, Baron de, 170–71, 172
Huc, Abbé, 51
Hunt, Thomas, 42, Pl. 14
Hunter, William C.:
as tour guide, 156, 163;
interactions with Chinese merchants, 40;
on comprador’s role, 31;
on New English Factory’s dining room, 25–26;
on Ocean Banner Buddhist monastery, 148–49;
on square in front of Thirteen Factories, 50;
on Thirteen Factories, 8;
on violence against Thirteen Factories, 56;
plan of factories by, 47;
relationship with Chinese woman, 44;
social activities of, 38–39
Hurley, R. C., tourist guidebook written by, 167, 169 fig. 3.4, 173–74, 177, 183
identity:
approach to, 1n3;
buildings as motivated by dynamics of foreign, 99–105;
distinctness of different foreign, 2, 233;
of Cantonese as shaping tourist experiences, 181, 220–25, 231;
Shamian buildings reflect European, 85–98;
verandahs as projecting, 18. See also otherness
Imperial Factory:
Chinese name of, 10n6;
façade of, 15, 16, Pl. 2;
location of, 10;
plans and room use of, 20, 21 fig. 1.3, 22–24, 26–27, 32;
relationships of guests and Chinese servants at, 34;
residents of, 13;
social activities at, 37–38
Imperial Maritime Customs:
commissioner’s residence, 89, 89 fig. 2.11, 117, 118 fig. 2.29–2.30, 119 fig. 2.31;
deputy commissioner’s residence, 89–90, 90 fig. 2.12, 108, 109 fig. 2.24, 110–11, 110 fig. 2.25;
main office, 99;
medical officer’s residence, 96, Pl. 18;
on Changdi bund, 214;
and otherness, 82 fig. 2.7, 83;
staff quarters, 192, 193 fig. 4.2
Inness, James, 55
International Banking Corporation, 193, 197–99, 198 fig. 4.7, Pl. 25
Intimate Travel Guide for 20 Oriental Cities, 220
Japanese firms, 197, 198 fig. 4.6
Japanese occupation, 190, 227
Jardine, Matheson & Co., 13, 28, 59–60, 87, 88 fig. 2.10
Jardine, William, 35
Jeejeebhoy, Jamsetjee, 35
Kahn, Albert, 192
Kahn, Julius, 192
Karanjia Terrace, 98, 106
Ke-kung (provincial governor general), 60–61
Kerr, J. G., tourist guidebook written by, 130, 167, 173, 174, 184–85, 187
King, Edward, 155
Kingqua (hong merchant), 40
Kingsmill, Thomas W., 76, 77 fig. 2.5, 79
Kinsman, Nathaniel, 24, 48
Laird, Warren Powers, 205, 206 fig. 4.11
Lam Woo, Mr., 192
Lau, Dennis, 230
Lee, Edward Bing-Shuey, 204, 219, 223–24
Lee, Milton Chun, 190
Lee Mun Une, 167
leisure spaces, 27, 49, 84–85, 113. See also social activities
Lemm, John, 135–36
Leung Alo, 133–34
Leung Poon, 108
Lingnan University, 205, 206 fig. 4.11, 207–10, 207 fig. 4.12, 208 fig. 4.13, 210 fig. 4.14;
as collaborative and progressive, 211, 233;
current state of, 232;
graduates of, 216;
map of, 7;
moves away from Guangzhou, 227
Lin Keming, 224
living and working quarters of Chinese employees:
in American concession, (p.251) 107, Pl. 20;
in Thirteen Factories, 22, 30–33, Pl. 12;
on Honam, 73 fig. 2.3;
on nineteenth-century Shamian, 80, 108, 109 fig. 2.24, 113, 116, 125, 126;
on twentieth-century Shamian, 191, 197, 199, 202. See also employer-employee relationships, Sino-foreign
Lixiang Yuan, 153, 156–58
Lo, Mr., 38–39
London, Guangzhou’s resemblance to, 230
London Missionary Society:
building on Shamian, 92–93, 101, 106, 107–8, 141, Pl. 17;
school founded by, 137–38;
Shakee Chapel, 133–35, 137;
Tsung Kwai San Kai Chapel, 135–37, 136 fig. 2.35
Loomis, Augustus Ward, 158
Loudon, John Claudius, 48
Low, Captain, 43
Luan Chang, 216
Lu Yanzhi, 217, 225n122
MacGowan, J., 179, 188
Macgregor (British consul), 63
Magee’s Hotel, 13, 39, 53–54
Malcolm, Howard, 159
Manchu City. See Old City
Mannerist design, 192, Pl. 25
Mao-era architecture, 227–28, 229 fig. 5.2
mapping, 145, 170
Markwick’s Hotel, 13, 20, 24, 26–27
marriage, Sino-foreign, 121–22
Martin Hall, 207, 207 fig. 4.12
Marvin, Bishop E. M., 177, 187–88
Matheson, James, 35
Medical Missionary Society of China, hospital founded by, 128–30, 129 fig. 2.32
Mediterranean Revival, 218, Pl. 27
Melrose, William, 24–25, 27, 36
merchants, Chinese. See hong merchants
merchants, foreign:
as supervisors of builders, 29;
background and role of, 34–35;
Guangzhou as popular place for, 9;
Mingqua (hong merchant):
garden villa as tourist site, 155–56;
social activities of, 39
Mingqua’s Hong:
Chinese name of, 10n6;
cross-cultural interactions at, 40;
façade of, 16, Pl. 4;
location of, 10
Mingqua’s New Hong, 18
missionaries, 127–39;
American Presbyterian, 128–30, 129 fig. 2.32, 173, 205, 211, 231;
background of, 35;
British Wesleyan Methodist, 93–94, 94 fig. 2.16, 133, 138;
changing tactics of, 204;
construction of cathedral by French Catholic, 130–32, 131 fig. 2.33, 132 fig. 2.34;
contributions to modernization, 212;
conversion activities of, 133–38;
hospitals founded by, 46, 127, 128–30, 129 fig. 2.32;
impact on Guangzhou, 144;
justifications for intervention by, 183;
sponsors of, 38. See also London Missionary Society
Mission Press, 146–47
Mission Revival, 218, Pl. 28
Mitsui Bussan Kaisha, 197, 198 fig. 4.6
Mo Bozhi, 230
Modern Canton (E. Lee), 223–24
modernization, 5, 212–21, 223, 226
Morse, Edward S., 186–87
Morss (American merchant), 58
Moul & Co., 79, 81
Mowqua’s hong, 25
Mundy, Walter William, 84, 121
Murphy, Henry K., 205, 209, 210 fig. 4.14
Murphy & Dana (firm), 197, 198 fig. 4.7, 209, 210 fig. 4.14
Nathan Dunn & Co., 20
national joint stock companies, 9, 12, 13, 35, 54–55. See also Dutch Factory; New English Factory; Old English Factory
Neo-Baroque architecture, 194, 194 fig. 4.3, 197, 198 fig. 4.6
neoclassicism:
in cemetery at Whampoa, Pl. 15;
in early twentieth century, 191, 213, 214 fig. 4.16;
in late twentieth century, 231;
in Thirteen Factories, 15, 16, 16 fig. 1.2, Pl. 1, Pl. 2, Pl. 4, Pl. 11;
(p.252) on Shamian, 76–77, 77 fig. 2.5, 80, 85, 91 fig. 2.13, 191
neo-Gothic architecture, 218, Pl. 29
neo-Palladianism, 23
New China Street:
as tourist site, 146, 160, 162;
location and characteristics of, 46, 52;
violence in, 63, 65
New City, 131–32
Newell, George, 42
New English Factory:
architectural influence of, 199, 200 fig. 4.8;
Chinese name of, 10n6;
destruction and rebuilding of, 14–16, 17, Pl. 7, Pl. 12;
dining room of, 25–26;
façade of, 14, 15–16, Pl. 2;
leisure spaces in, 27;
location of, 10;
residents of, 35;
violence against, 54, 58, 59–62, 66
Ng Chun Man, 230
Ng Mun Ching, 80
Ng Yong Sang, 1, 223–24
Notices Concerning China and the Port of Canton, 146–48, 147 fig. 3.1
Nye, Gideon, 13, 29, 51, 56–57, 70, 98
Nye & Co., 68–69, 69 fig. 2.1, 70
observation and surveillance:
by Chinese employees, 34;
in and near square in front of Thirteen Factories, 51–52;
of and by Western tourists, 145, 150, 157, 164, 178–80;
on and near verandahs, 40–41
Ocean Banner Buddhist monastery, 146–50, 147 fig. 3.1, 181, 221
Old China Street:
as tourist site, 146, 160, 161–62;
location and characteristics of, 46, 52;
violence in, 62–63, 64–65
Old English Factory:
additions to, 17;
Chinese name of, 10n6;
destruction and rebuilding of, 14–16, 18;
façade of, 14, 15–16, Pl. 2;
location of, 10;
residents of, 35;
violence against, 56, 57
Olyphant, David W., 38, 40
Opium War:
changes wrought by, 167;
concessions made after, 165–66;
defined, 3;
maps produced during, 11 fig. 1.1, 167, 180;
tourism during, 152;
violence during and immediately after, 57–62, 66. See also Arrow War
Osbeck, Pehr, 12
otherness, 34, 82 fig. 2.7, 83, 126. See also identity
Paget, Mr., 192
Pak Hin Hok, 72
Palmer and Turner (firm), 197
Paoshun Factory, 10, 10n6, 18
Parker, Dr. Peter:
as tour guide for foreigners, 156, 163–64;
fights rioters during assault on Thirteen Factories, 63;
hospital founded by, 46, 127, 128;
successor of, 173
Parker, E. H., 140–41
Parsees:
cemetery of, 42, 42n126;
on Honam, 70;
residences during Thirteen Factories era, 13;
socializing with Westerners, 38, 40, 49
Paunkeiqua (hong merchant):
garden villa as tourist site, 152–54, 156–58;
garden villa attacked during Arrow War, 167;
merchants with name of, 39, 153n27
Pearce, T. W., 134, 135, 142
Pearl River (Zhujiang), 7, 41–45
Pidgeon, Daniel, 181
Plum Blossom Village, 219
Polo, Marco, 183
power and status:
buildings as manifestation of Western, 99–105, 144, 201–2;
furniture as display of, 159;
influence on foreigners’ perceptions of tour guides, 175;
social activities as display of, 120, 123;
verandahs as projecting, 18;
Zhenhai Lou as symbol of, 165
Presbyterian mission efforts, American. See American Presbyterian mission efforts
progress, Lingnan University as site of, 211
Protestant missions, 133–38
Pui To girls’ schools, 219
Purnell, Mr., 192
Purnell & Paget (firm), 91 fig. 2.13, 192–93, 193 fig. 4.2, 197, Pl. 25
(p.253) pursers, role of, 22, 31–32
Pustau & Co., 87–88, 87 fig. 2.9, 141
Quanshing (outside merchant), 40
quarters of Chinese employees. See living and working quarters of Chinese employees
Queen Anne design, 192, 193 fig. 4.2
racism and Sinophobia, 34, 83, 124, 126, 174, 202. See also segregation
railways, 217–18, 219, 230
regulations on foreigners’ movements, 12, 44–45, 145, 164–65, 166–67. See also desegregation; gates and guardhouses; segregation; tourist sites
regulations on Shamian, 202–4
reinforced concrete buildings:
in early twentieth century, 213, 214 fig. 4.16;
in late twentieth century, 230;
in Lingnan University, 205, 207, 207 fig. 4.12;
Reiss & Co., 79, 81
Renaissance Italian architecture:
in Thirteen Factories, 15, 23, Pl. 2;
on Shamian, 76, 77 fig. 2.5, 78, 85, 192, Pl. 25
rent rates in early twentieth century, 220
riots. See violence
Roberts, I. J., 127–28
rooms for Chinese employees. See living and working quarters of Chinese employees
Ruschenberger, W. S. W., 162
Russell, Samuel, 44
Russell & Co.:
buildings of, 92, 92 fig. 2.14, 98–101, 100 fig. 2.21, 106–7, Pl. 1920;
violence and, 141, 142
Sacre Coeur. See Catholic cathedral
Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge Company, 217
Second Empire architecture, 89, 89 fig. 2.11
segregation:
during Thirteen Factories era, 12, 18, 52, Pl. 7;
foreigners’ desire for, 67–68;
influence on tourist industry, 174;
of foreigners from one another, 131;
on Shamian, 83, 85, 105, 143–44, 199, 202–4, 226, 233;
self-representation of Cantonese, 181, 220–25, 231
Seton, Grace Thompson, 211
Seward, Olive Risley, 145, 182–83
Seward, William H., 85, 171
Seymour, Charles, 98, 120
Shakee Chapel, 133–35, 137
Shameen Hotel, 92, 93 fig. 2.15, 173–74, 177
Shamian, 74–98;
aerial view of, 75 fig. 2.4;
as center of foreign social life, 67, 74;
as pastoral paradise, 83–85;
construction and planning of, 74–76;
early twentieth-century architecture on, 190–202;
European identity reflected in buildings of, 85–98;
foreigners’ move to, 70;
furniture and interior decor in houses on, 110–11, 110 fig. 2.25, 116–17, 118 fig. 2.29–2.30, 119, 119 fig. 2.31;
infrastructure improvements on, 194;
late twentieth-century building on, 230;
maps of, 7, 86, 86 fig. 2.8;
population of, 199;
real estate pressures on, 98, 116, 191, 220;
regulations on, 202–4;
social activities on, 105, 119–21, 122–24;
Thirteen Factories’ architectural influence on, 81, 82 fig. 2.6, 199, 200 fig. 4.8;
tourism (p.254) today, 231;
vegetation on, 80–81, 83–84;
violence on, 141–43, 202, 226, 227 fig. 5.1, 233
Shanghai, 2, 4, 67, 85, 197
Shenzhen, 230
Shewan Tomes & Co., 91–92, 92 fig. 2.14
Shing On Company, 137
ship captains, 36–37, 41
ships on the Pearl River, 41–45, Pl. 14
Shisan Hang. See Thirteen Factories
shop houses, 215–16, 215 fig. 4.17, 228, 232
shopping, 46, 146, 160–64, Pl. 22
Shumaker, H. K., 138–39
Sino-foreign interactions and relationships:
approach to, 1, 3–6, 30n76;
Archdeacon Gray, 123–24, 125, 159, 170–71;
boat people, 43–44;
employer-employee, 124–26, 143;
foreigners’ humanitarian efforts and, 171, 173;
language barrier and, 3;
missionaries and, 130–31, 134–35;
plans and contracts for building construction, 93, 99–101, Pl. 17;
possibilities and problems in the twentieth century, 190;
schools as bridge to, 205;
sexual and marital, 44, 121–22;
shifts during Thirteen Factories era, 8;
shopping as point of, 160;
social activities, 38–40, 120, 122–24, 212;
square as space of, 49–52;
Smith, A. B., 157
Smith Archer & Co., 98–100, 100 fig. 2.21, 106–7
social activities:
at Whampoa, 43, 45;
cross-cultural, 38–40, 120, 122–24, 212;
in Thirteen Factories, 37–40, 50;
on Shamian, 105, 119–21, 122–24;
shopping, 46, 146, 160–64, Pl. 22. See also leisure spaces; tourist sites
South Asian traders, 96, 97 fig. 2.20
Soviet architecture, 228
Soviet Union, 226
Spanish Factory, 10, 10n6, 16–17
spatial relations, approach to, 1, 66. See also Sino-foreign interactions and relationships
Spinney, Annie Ward:
on edenic appeal of Shamian, 84;
on social activities, 119–20;
plans of house drawn by, 108, 109 fig. 2.24, 110–11, 110 fig. 2.25, 126;
relationship with Chinese servants, 125–26
Spinney, William, 84
square in front of Thirteen Factories:
as site and cause of violence, 52, 53, 56;
as space of freedom for foreigners, 45;
as space of Sino-foreign interactions, 49–52;
design development of, 46–47, 48, Pl. 34;
drawings of, 16 fig. 1.2, Pl. 5, Pl. 89. See also American Garden; British Garden
status. See power and status
Stoddard, Caroline, 27, 163–64
Stoddard, John L., 176, 179–80, 186
Stoughton, Charles W.:
architectural plans for Lingnan University, 205, 206 fig. 4.11;
design style of, 205, 207, 209;
photos of buildings of, 207 fig. 4.12, 208 fig. 4.13;
YWCA building by, 212
street life in Guangzhou, 187–88, 232. See also shopping
Sun Fo, 216
Sun Yat-sen, 5, 216, 226
Sun Yat-sen Memorial, 225
Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, 197, 216–17, 224–25, 228
Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, 205, 227, 232. See also Lingnan University
supercargoes, 13n17, 36–37
(p.255) Swasey Hall, 208 fig. 4.13, 209
Swedish Factory:
Chinese name of, 10n6;
façade of, 15, 16, Pl. 2;
location of, 10;
residents of, 13;
violence against, 56
Sweester, Delight, 176, 187
Tai Sun (Daxin) Co., 213–14, 214 fig. 4.16, 231, Pl. 26
Taylor, Fitch W., 19–20, 40–41, 44, 148, 160
Taylor, J. W., 203
tea tasting rooms, 23–24, 71, 72 fig. 2.2, Pl. 11
T. E. Griffith (firm), 192, 193 fig. 4.2
temples, Buddhist:
as top tourist attraction, 181;
Temple of the Five Genii (Temple of the Five Hundred Lohans), 166, 172, 182–84, 221, Pl. 23;
Temple of the Five Immortals, 221
Thirteen Factories, 8–66;
architectural influence of, 18, Pl. 6;
architectural influence on Honam, 68–69, 69 fig. 2.1, Pl. 16;
architectural influence on Shamian, 81, 82 fig. 2.6, 199, 200 fig. 4.8;
building materials, 14–15;
demise of, 64–65, 66 fig. 1.4;
destruction and rebuilding of, 14–17, 18, 28–30, 28n70, 47, 59–62, Pl. 3, Pl. 7, Pl. 12;
drawings of, Pl. 15, Pl. 911;
façades of, 14–18, Pl. 2, Pl. 4, Pl. 10;
later foreign buildings constructed on site of, 98–101, 100 fig. 2.21, 106–7, Pl. 1920;
living and working quarters of Chinese employees in, 22, 30–33, Pl. 12;
location and size, 9–10, 9n3, Pl. 1;
maps, 7, 11 fig. 1.1, 19, 28;
names of, 10, 10n6, 12;
nationalities of residents of, 13;
plans and room use of, 19–20, 21 fig. 1.3, 22–30, 32, 47, Pl. 7;
social activities at, 37–40, 50;
violence against, 8, 52–65, 233;
work performed by staff and servants of, 31–37
Thirteen Factories era:
connection with current era, 234;
duration of, 8;
foreign tourism in, 145–46 (See also tourist sites)
Thomas Adams & Wood (firm), 197
Thomas Cook & Son travel agency, 176
Thomson, John, 71, 102, 160
Tianhe, 230
Tiffany, Osmond, Jr.:
on American Garden, 48;
on boat people, 43–44;
on cooleys’ accommodations in hong merchants’ buildings, 22;
on counting rooms, 24;
on Fati flower gardens, 151;
on Ocean Banner Buddhist monastery, 148–50;
on Paunkeiqua’s garden, 157;
on shops, 42, 161–63;
on square in front of Thirteen Factories, 49;
on Thirteen Factories’ employees, 31, 32–33, 36;
on Thirteen Factories’ layout, 19;
praise for China, 1
Tilden, Bryant Parrott:
on Chinese employees, 32, 33;
on cross-cultural social activities, 39, 49, 153–54, 158;
on factories as hotels, 13;
on Imperial Factory’s plans and room use, 20, 21 fig. 1.3, 22, 23, 26;
on shops, 160;
on Thirteen Factories’ buildings, 14;
on violence against Thirteen Factories, 53–54
Tingqua (hong merchant), garden villa of, 155, 159
tour guides:
Cantonese, 175–77, 178, 179–80;
Western, 156, 163–64, 171, 173, 183
touring vs. mapping, 145
tourism on Shamian today, 231
tourist guidebooks:
Archdeacon Gray’s, 170–72, 175, 180–81, 187;
by Cantonese, 223–24;
Hurley’s, 167, 169 fig. 3.4, 173–74, 177, 183;
Kerr’s, 130, 167, 173, 174, 184–85, 187;
maps in, 167, 169 fig. 3.4, 170, 173, 174
“Tourist’s Guide for the City of Canton Compiled from Various Sources” (Carrall), 173, 174
Tourist’s Guide to Canton, the West River, and Macao, The. See Hurley, R. C.
tourist sites:
as items on itinerary, 146, 156, 174, 180;
Cantonese guides as primary interpreters of, 176;
Fati flower gardens, 146, 150–51, 152 fig. 3.2;
hong merchants’ houses and gardens, (p.256) 152–55, 156–59, 167, 187, Pl. 21;
in early twentieth century, 220–25, 222 fig. 4.18, 224 fig. 4.19, Pl. 26;
in immediate aftermath of Arrow War, 170;
Ocean Banner Monastery, 146–50, 147 fig. 3.1, 181, 221;
Western superiority and views of what constitute important, 180–87, 188–89. See also shopping
trade, Sino-foreign, 2, 3–4, 8, 165. See also Thirteen Factories
transportation, modernization of, 217–18
Traveler’s Handbook for China, The (Crow), 220
Treaty of Nanjing, 2, 3–4, 165–66
Triangle Mesh Wire reinforcement, 207
True Light Middle School, 211–12, 212 fig. 4.15
Truscon (firm), 192
Tsung Kwai San Kai Chapel, 135–37, 136 fig. 2.35
Turner, John A., 130, 181
United Brethren, 137, 138–39, 139 fig. 2.36
United States Steel Products Company, 207
valets, role of, 33, 107
Victorian design:
in Purnell & Paget’s buildings, 192, 193 fig. 4.2;
in schools, 208 fig. 4.13, 209, 219;
machine aesthetics, 90, 91 fig. 2.13
violence:
against British consulate buildings, 28n70, 79n40, 141–42;
against Thirteen Factories, 8, 52–65, 233;
Catholic cathedral and, 140–41, 233;
escalation following Thirteen Factories’ destruction, 65–66;
Wales, J. F., 96, Pl. 18
Walks in the City of Canton. See Gray, Archdeacon John Henry
walled city. See Old City
warehouses, 28, 72, 73 fig. 2.3, 74
War of 1812, 42, Pl. 14
water clock, 184
Weaser & Raven (firm), 197
Wesleyan Methodist mission efforts, 93–94, 94 fig. 2.16, 133, 138
Western, use of term, 1n3
Western design:
blurs with Chinese, 212, 219;
current example of, Pl. 6;
in early twentieth century, 216;
in schools, 208–10, 212 fig. 4.15;
in Thirteen Factories, 14, 18, 28–30, Pl. 20;
in Tsung Kwai San Kai Chapel, 136–37;
on Honam, 69, 69 fig. 2.1, 70;
vs. Cantonese practice in plans and contracts, 93, 99–101, Pl. 17. See also furniture; names of specific architectural movements
western suburbs. See Xiguan (western suburb)
Western superiority and tourists’ perceptions of China, 180–87, 188–89
Western women:
at Lingnan University, 211;
relationships with Chinese servants, 124–26, 143;
restrictions on residing in China, 13, 166;
social activities on Shamian, 119–21;
tourist experience of, 163–64, 179. See also families, foreigners’
Wetmore & Co., 20, 21 fig. 1.3, 22–23, 32, 37–38, Pl. 11
Whampoa, 41–43, 45, 99, Pl. 1315
White Swan Hotel, 230, 231
Willard Straight Memorial Science Hall, 209, 210 fig. 4.14
Wood, W. W., 50
Wu, H. L., 216
Xiguan (western suburb):
chapels and churches in, 133, 135, 136 fig. 2.35, 137, 138;
commercial functions located in, 146n4;
contrast with Shamian, 83;
(p.257) current state of, 232;
map of, 7;
representative of street life in China, 187;
shopping in, 160–61, 163–64;
Thirteen Factories–era residents of, 9
Xu, Commissioner, 166
yamen:
as British and French consulate buildings, 98–99, 102–5, 103 fig. 2.22, 104 fig. 2.23, 140, 143;
attacked and appropriated during Arrow War, 130, 144, 166–67, 233;
municipal takeover of, 221
Yang Xizong, 224 fig. 4.19, 225n122
Ye, Governor, 130, 144, 166
Yeung Sik-chung, 216
Yik Shing, 29
Young, John Russell, 188
Yvan, Melchior, 13, 162
Zhenhai Lou, 165, 167, 173, 222–23, 222 fig. 4.18
Zhongshan Library, 228
Zhongshan (Sun Yat-sen) University, 205, 227, 232. See also Lingnan University
Zhujiang (Pearl River), 7, 41–45
Zhujiang Bridge, 217
Zhujiang Xincheng (Pearl River New Town), 230, 232