Discussing male same-sex relations in China during the first half of the twentieth century entailes using the wide vocabulary that is often seen in translated literary works, sexological writings, and other publications. At the beginning of the twentieth century urban citizens emphasized that the need to strengthen the nation further highlighted the need for attaining a modernized understanding of sex and gender. Between the early 1920s and the early 1930s, Western sexology translators could be classified as those who hailed same-sex love as human utopia's foundation, and those that pathologized homosexuals because of how they demonstrated social immorality. Iconoclastic literary writers utilized male same-sex love as a protest against conventional sexual and social norms while their conservative counterparts used tabloids to emphasize how sex between men represented weakness. “Obsession” is the English translation of pi, which serves as a fundamental framework for understanding male same-sex desire.
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