During the first half of the twentieth century, male same-sex relations manifested in five overlapping sites—the Peking opera field, translated sexological writings, tabloid newspapers, language, and literary works. Analyzing these five venues reveals a usable, although fragmented, history. The nationalist cultural conservatives attempted to set China's masculine image internationally so that the old hierarchical gender order was to be retained. As some sexological writing translators also adopted a similar view, iconoclastic intellectuals utilized Western knowledge in efforts to strengthen the nation. As this chapter summarizes the study's main points, the book generally suggests that the meaning of male same-sex sexuality and masculinity were also determined by that of modernity and nationhood, and vice versa.
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