This chapter examines the military defenses of Macau during the nineteenth century. The Opium War revitalized the construction of forts and Portugal appointed João Maria Ferreira do Amaral as governor of Macau to ward off any threat to trade posed by the new British territory of Hong Kong. Amaral started a program of construction and modernization that was completed after his death. His projects included the construction of the forts in Mong Ha and Dona Maria II, a strong point on Taipa and a battery on Coloane.
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