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The Empress and Mrs. CongerThe Uncommon Friendship of Two Women and Two Worlds$
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Grant Hayter-Menzies

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9789888083008

Published to Hong Kong Scholarship Online: September 2011

DOI: 10.5790/hongkong/9789888083008.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM HONG KONG SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.hongkong.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Hong Kong University Press, 2022. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in HKSO for personal use.date: 02 July 2022

Mother of China

Mother of China

Chapter:
(p.17) 2 Mother of China
Source:
The Empress and Mrs. Conger
Author(s):

Grant Hayter-Menzies

Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:10.5790/hongkong/9789888083008.003.0013

This chapter presents a brief biography of Empress Dowager Cixi. The received birth date for Cixi is November 29, 1835, but where her birth took place is a mystery. Cixi's father, Kueixiang, was a descendant of Nurhaci, the first ruler of the Manchu imperial house. This made him an imperial alternate, of lineage so designated to mark it off from the ruling imperial lineage. In the thirty-seven years before Sarah Conger's arrival in China in July 1898, Cixi had become the most powerful woman in the world next to Queen Victoria, one of the few foreign leaders she admired. The Empress Dowager has been the first of her race to apprehend the problem of the relation of China to the outer world, and to make use of this relation to strengthen her dynasty and promote material progress.

Keywords:   Empress Dowager Cixi, Kueixiang, Nurhaci, Cixi, Sarah Conger

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