This chapter provides an overview of social movements in the socio-cultural, economic, and political context of Hong Kong. It also draws on feminist and social movement scholarship to illustrate how the empirical focus on Hong Kong can advance theoretical deliberations on transnational feminism. Constructions of collective identity are fundamental to grievance interpretation in all forms of collective action. However, current debates within feminist scholarship reveal that this alignment between identity and mobilization has only been partially addressed. Identities, within these debates, are conceived as extant before movements, which subsequently make them salient by deploying them strategically for political and social change. On the contrary, social movement scholars argue that collective identity is not only necessary for successful collective action, it is often an end in itself. This chapter argues for feminism as a “collective action frame,” rather than a “collective identity,” so as to facilitate our understanding of how women activists build transnational feminist solidarity. The meanings of feminism that dominate at any particular moment are not given a priori, but rather formed out of negotiation and struggle within and across women's movements. This framing process facilitates the extension of personal identity in movement contexts and generates the collective action frame that inspires and legitimizes women's activism.
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