Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Enclave to UrbanityCanton, Foreigners, and Architecture from the Late Eighteenth to the Early Twentieth Centuries$
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content.

Johnathan Andrew Farris

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9789888208876

Published to Hong Kong Scholarship Online: January 2017

DOI: 10.5790/hongkong/9789888208876.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM HONG KONG SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.hongkong.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Hong Kong University Press, 2022. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in HKSO for personal use.date: 20 May 2022

The Thirteen Factories

The Thirteen Factories

An Architecture of Sino-Western Collaboration and Confrontation

(p.8) Chapter 1 The Thirteen Factories
Enclave to Urbanity

Johnathan Andrew Farris

Hong Kong University Press

Chapter 1 covers the first of the three distinct phases of foreign habitation in Guangzhou, the Thirteen Factories, characterized by Westerners and Chinese employees living in close quarters in structures closely following adjacent buildings in a Chinese business district, which were part of the Cantonese vernacular tradition. By the late eighteenth century, these buildings had acquired Western façades using the vocabulary of Neoclassical architecture. While initially these buildings were occupied seasonally by the employees of various national joint stock “East India” companies, they would begin increasingly to be occupied by “resident” merchants whose working year became longer and longer in the nineteenth century.

Keywords:   Guangzhou, China, Architectural history, Culture, Social history, eighteenth century, Enclave, the Thirteen Factories era

Hong Kong Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.

Please, subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs , and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us .