This chapter argues that an assumption of the “refractory” nature of the huaqiao in the white-settler nations of the Pacific continues to be a strong element in the literature based on nation-state perspectives. The prime factor in the limitations of nation-state research is just that—that it is based on a single nation-state. The obvious solution to this is comparative history, but while some comparative work is presented here, the major aim of this chapter is to argue that the incorporation of a qiaoxiang perspective allows limitations based on nation-state concepts to be explored and surpassed. Ignorance of the qiaoxiang has contributed to the range of stereotypes, including a perception of “refractoriness” that the huaqiao have been subjected to in the destinations. Much research has also attempted to explain or deny the basis of these stereotypes; however, in doing so without an appreciation of the role of the qiaoxiang links, the basic assumptions of these stereotypes often remain unquestioned.
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