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Sino-French Trade at Canton, 1698-1842$
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Susan E. Schopp

Print publication date: 2021

Print ISBN-13: 9789888528509

Published to Hong Kong Scholarship Online: September 2021

DOI: 10.5790/hongkong/9789888528509.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM HONG KONG SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.hongkong.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Hong Kong University Press, 2022. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in HKSO for personal use.date: 29 June 2022

Chronological Overview of the French Trade at Canton, 1698–1842

Chronological Overview of the French Trade at Canton, 1698–1842

Chapter:
(p.7) 1 Chronological Overview of the French Trade at Canton, 1698–1842
Source:
Sino-French Trade at Canton, 1698-1842
Author(s):

Susan E. Schopp

Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:10.5790/hongkong/9789888528509.003.0002

Chapter 1 provides a chronological overview of France’s near century and a half (1698–1842) in the Canton Trade. The Europe trade was carried out for its first two decades by private traders to whom the French East India Company leased its China monopoly on a limited basis; then, following reorganization in 1719, the Company began to exercise that monopoly itself, sending ships to Canton from 1720 to 1769. In 1769 the trade was opened to all French subjects and continued so until 1785, when the third Company was created; and when the trade was opened once and for all to all French nationals in 1790, this Company became private, in competition with other private companies before it was abolished in 1793. The intra-Asian (country) trade, in contrast, was initially in the hands of the Company, which remained involved in it to some degree before the trade went wholly private in the early 1740s. The French experience demonstrates the need for a reassessment of the traditional definitions of the terms “private” and “company,” and “Europe” and “intra-Asian,” proving that the distinctions between them are in fact far more nuanced, and indeed, often blurry, than traditionally acknowledged.

Keywords:   early French maritime exploration and trading efforts, French East India Company, Compagnie des Indes, East India companies, private China trade, Europe trade, intra-Asian trade, country trade, privilege trade, port-permis

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